Chronology of Gypsy History
- 224-241 Persia: In the reign of Shah Ardashir, Gypsies first come from India to work.420-438 Persia: Bahram Gur, Shah of Persia, brings Gypsy musicians from India.661 Arab Empire: Indians (Zott) brought from India to Mesopotamia.669 /670 Arab Empire : Caliph Muawiya deports Gypsies from Basra to Antioch on the Mediterranean coast.c. 710 Arab Empire : Caliph Walid resettles Zott from Mesopotamia to Antioch.720 Arab Empire: Caliph Yazid II sends still more Zott to Antioch.820 Arab Empire: Independent Zott state established in Mesopotamia.834 Arab Empire : Zott defeated by Arabs and many of them resettled in border town of Ainzarba.855 Arab Empire : Battle of Ainzarba fought. Greeks defeat the Arabs and take Zott soldiers and their families as prisoners to Byzantium.c. 1050 Byzantium : Acrobats and animal doctors active (called athingani) in Constantinople.1192 India: Battle of Terain fought. Last Gypsies leave for the west. 1290 Greece: Gypsy shoemakers appear on Mount Athos. 1322 Crete: Nomads reported on the island.1347 Byzantium : Black Death reaches Constantinople. Gypsies move west again.1348 Serbia: Gypsies reported in Prizren.1362 Croatia: Gypsies reported in Dubrovnik.1373 Corfu: Gypsies reported on the island.1378 Bulgaria: Gypsies living in villages near Rila Monastery.1384 Greece: Gypsy shoemakers reported in Modon.1385 Romania: First transaction recorded of Gypsy slaves.1399 Bohemia: The first Gypsy is mentioned in a chronicle.1407 Germany: Gypsies visit Hildesheim. Germany: Gypsies expelled from Meissen region.Holy Roman Empire: King Sigismund issues safe conduct to Gypsies at Lindau.France: First Gypsies reported in Colmar. Switzerland: First Gypsies arrive.Belgium: First Gypsies reported in Antwerp.Holland: First Gypsies reported in Deventer.Italy: Gypsies come to Bologna.Italy: Andrew, Duke of Little Egypt, and his followers set off to visit Pope Martin V in Rome. Slovakia: Gypsies reported in Spissky.1425 Spain: Gypsies reported in Zaragoza.1447 Catalonia: Gypsies first reported.1453 Byzantium : Turks capture Constantinople. Some Gypsies flee westward. Slovenia: A Gypsy smith is reported in the country.1468 Cyprus: Gypsies first reported.Switzerland: Parliament meeting in Lucerne banishes Gypsies.Rhine Palatinate: Duke Friedrich asks his people to help the Gypsy pilgrims.1485 Sicily: Gypsies first reported.1489 Hungary: Gypsy musicians play on Czepel Island.Spain: First draft of the forthcoming law of 1499 drawn up.Italy: Gypsies expelled from Milan.Germany (Holy Roman Empire): Expulsion of Gypsies ordered.Spain: Expulsion of the Gypsies ordered (Pragmatica of the Catholic Kings).Russia: Gypsies first reported.France: Expulsion of Gypsies ordered.Denmark: Two groups of Gypsies enter the country. Scotland: Gypsy pilgrims arrive, probably from Spain.1510 Switzerland: Death penalty introduced for Gypsies found in the country.1512 Catalonia: Gypsies expelled. Sweden: First Gypsies arrive.England: Gypsies first mentioned in the country.Germany: Bavaria closes its borders to Gypsies.Portugal: Gypsies mentioned in literature.1525 Portugal: Gypsies banned from the country. Sweden: Gypsies ordered to leave the country.1526 Holland: Transit of Gypsies across country banned.1530 England and Wales: Expulsion of Gypsies ordered.1534 Slovakia: Gypsies executed in Levoca.1536 Denmark: Gypsies ordered to leave the country.Portugal: Deportation of Gypsies to colonies begins.Spain: Any males found nomadizing to be sent to galleys.Scotland: Gypsies allowed to live under own laws.1541 Czech lands: Gypsies accused of starting a fire in Prague.1544 England: Gypsies deported to Norway.1547 England: Boorde publishes specimens of Romani. 1549 Bohema: Gypsies declared outlaws and to be expelled.Estonia: First Gypsies appear in the country.England: The death penalty is imposed for any Gypsies not leaving the country within a month.1557 Poland and Lithuania: Expulsion of Gypsies ordered. 1559 Finland: Gypsies appear on the island of Aland.England: Provisions of previous acts widened to include people who live and travel like Gypsies.Italy: Council of Trent affirms that Gypsies cannot be priests.Scotland: Gypsies to either settle down or leave the country.Ottoman Empire: Gypsy miners working in Bosnia.Portugal: Wearing of Gypsy dress banned. Wales: Gypsies first reported.Finland: First Gypsies reported on the mainland. 1584 Denmark and Norway: Expulsion of Gypsies ordered. 1586 Belarus: Nomadic Gypsies expelled.1589 Denmark : Death penalty imposed for Gypsies not leaving the country.1595 Romania : Stefan Razvan, the son of a slave, becomes ruler of Moldavia.1611 Scotland: Three Gypsies hanged (under 1554 law).1633 Spain: Pragmatica of Felipe IV takes effect. Gypsies expelled.1637 Sweden : Death penalty introduced for Gypsies not leaving the country.1692 Austria: Gypsies reported in Villach. 1714 Scotland: Two female Gypsies executed.1715 Scotland: Ten Gypsies deported to Virginia.1728 Holland: Last hunt clears out Gypsies.1746 Spain: Gypsies to live in named towns.Sweden: Foreign Gypsies expelled.Spain: Round-up and imprisonment of all Gypsies ordered.Austro-Hungarian Empire: Maria Theresa begins assimilation program.Russia: Gypsies banned from St. Petersburg.1765 Austro -Hungarian Empire: Joseph II continues assimilation program.1776 Austria : First article published on the Indian origin of the Romani language.Hungary: Two hundred Gypsies charged with cannibalism.Russia: Settlement of nomads encouraged. Spain: Gypsy language and dress banned. United Kingdom: Most racial legislation against Gypsies repealed.1791 Poland: Settlement Law introduced.1802 France: Gypsies in Basque provinces rounded up and imprisoned.1812 Finland: Order confines nomadic Gypsies in workhouses.1822 United Kingdom : Turnpike Act introduced: Gypsies camping on the roadside to be fined.1830 Germany : Authorities in Nordhausen remove children from their families for fostering with non-Gypsies.1835 Denmark : Hunt for Travelers in Jutland. United Kingdom: Highways Act strengthens the provisions of the 1822 Turnpike Act.1837 Spain: George Borrow translates St. Luke's Gospel into Romani.Transylvania: Serfs (including Gypsies) emancipated.Denmark: Gypsies allowed into the country again.1855 Romania: Gypsy slaves in Moldavia emancipated.1856 Romania: Gypsy slaves in Wallachia emancipated.1860 Sweden: Immigration restrictions eased.1865 Scotland: Trespass (Scotland) Act introduced.1868 Holland: New immigration of Gypsies reported.1872 Belgium: Foreign Gypsies expelled.Ottoman Empire: Muslim Gypsies given equal rights with other Muslims.Denmark: Gypsies barred from the country once more.Bulgaria: In a pogrom, villagers massacre the Muslim Gypsies in Koprivshtitsa.1879 Hungary : National conference of Gypsies held in Kisfalu. Serbia: Nomadism banned.1886 Bulgaria : Nomadism banned. Germany: Bismarck recommends expulsion of foreign Gypsies.1888 United Kingdom: Gypsy Lore Society established.1899 Germany : Police Gypsy Information Service set up in Munich by Alfred Dillmann.Germany: Prussian Parliament unanimously adopts proposal to regulate Gypsy movement and work.Bulgaria: Sofia conference held, demanding voting rights for Gypsies. Germany: A census of all Gypsies in Bavaria is taken.Finland: Mission to the Gypsies set up. France: Identity card introduced for nomads. Germany: Prussian minister issues special instructions to police to "combat the Gypsy nuisance."1914 Norway : Some 30 Gypsies are given Norwegian nationality. Sweden: Deportation Act also makes new immigration of Gypsies difficult.Holland: Caravan and House Boat Law introduces controls.Bulgaria: Istiqbal organization founded.Germany: In Baden, all Gypsies are to be photographed and fingerprinted.Bulgaria: Journal Istiqbal [Future] starts publication.Slovakia: A group of Gypsies is tried for cannibalism; they are found innocent.USSR: All-Russian Union of Gypsies established.Germany: Bavarian state parliament brings in a new law "to combat Gypsy nomads and idlers." Switzerland: Pro Juventute starts a program of forced removal of Gypsy children from their families for fostering. USSR: First moves to settle nomadic Gypsies.Germany: Legislation requiring the photographing and fingerprinting of Gypsies instituted in Prussia. Bavaria institutes laws forbidding Gypsies to travel in large groups or to own firearms. Norway: The Aliens Act bars foreign Gypsies from the country. USSR: Journal Romani Zorya (Romany Dawn) starts publication.Germany: Nomadic Gypsies in Germany are to be placed under permanent police surveillance. Prof. Hans F. Günther writes that it was the Gypsies who introduced foreign blood into Europe. Slovakia: Pogrom takes place in Pobedim.USSR: Nikolai Pankov's Romani book Buti i Dzinaiben [Work and Knowledge] published.Norway: A doctor recommends that all Travelers be sterilized. USSR: First issue of the journal Nevo Drom [New Way] appears.USSR: Teatr Romen opens in Moscow.1933 Austria : Officials in Burgenland call for the withdrawal of all civil rights for Gypsies. Bulgaria: Journal Terbie [Education] starts publication. Germany: The National Socialist (Nazi) Party comes to power, and measures against Jews and Gypsies begin. Gypsy musicians barred from the State Cultural Chamber. Sinto boxer Johann Trollmann stripped of his title as light-heavyweight champion for "racial reasons." Act for the Prevention of Hereditarily Ill Offspring, also known as the Sterilization Act, instituted. During "Beggars' Week," many Gypsies arrested.Latvia: St. John's Gospel translated into Romani. Romania: General Association of the Gypsies of Romania founded. National conference held. Journals Neamul Tiganesc [Gypsy Nation] and Timpul [Time] start publication. USSR: Teatr Romen performs the opera Carmen.Germany: Gypsies who cannot prove German nationality expelled. Romania: Bucharest "international" Congress.Germany: Marriages between Gypsies and Germans banned. Yugoslavia: Journal Romano Lil starts publication.Germany: The right to vote removed from Gypsies. June-Internment camp at Marzahn opened. General Decree for Fighting the Gypsy Menace instituted. November-Racial Hygiene and Population Biological Research Unit of the Health Office begins its work. The minister of war orders that Gypsies should not be called up for active military service.Poland: Janusz Kwiek elected king of the Gypsies.Germany: April-Decree on the Preventative Fight against Crime: All Gypsies classed as antisocial. Many Gypsies arrested to be forced labor for the building of concentration camps. June-Second wave of arrests to provide labor to build the camps. Autumn-Racial Hygiene Research Center begins to set up an archive of Gypsy tribes. October-National Center for Fighting the Gypsy Menace established. December-"Fight against the Gypsy Menace" ordered. USSR: Government bans Romani language and culture.Germany: September-Deportation of 30,000 Gypsies planned. October-Settlement Decree: Gypsies not allowed to travel. November- Gypsy fortune-tellers arrested and sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp.German-occupied Czech lands: Nomadism forbidden. German-occupied Poland: Special identity cards issued for Gypsies.Austria: August-Internment camp built in Salzburg. October- Internment of the Gypsies in Burgenland ordered. November- Internment camp for Gypsies set up in Lackenbach. Czech lands: August-Labor camps set up in Lety and Hodonín. France: April- Government opens internment camps for nomads. Germany: Heinrich Himmler orders the resettlement of Gypsies in western Poland.Baltic States: December-Governor Hinrich Lohse orders that Gypsies should "be given the same treatment as Jews." Croatia: Jaseno-vac concentration camp opened. Czech lands: October-Decision that Gypsies from the so-called Protectorate are to be sent to a concentration camp. Germany: March-Exclusion of Gypsy children from school begins. July-Reinhard Heydrich, Heinrich Himmler's deputy, brings the Gypsies into the plans for a Final Solution to the "Jewish problem." Latvia: December-All 101 Gypsies in the town of Libau are executed. Poland: October-A Gypsy camp is set up in the Jewish ghetto of Lodz for 5,000 inmates. Serbia: May-German military commander states that Gypsies will be treated as Jews. November-German military command orders the immediate arrest of all Jews and Gypsies, to be held as hostages. Slovakia: April-Decree separating the Gypsies from the majority population. USSR: June-Schutzstaffel (Storm Troopers) Task Forces move into the occupied areas and systematically kill Jews and Romanies. September-Task forces carry out mass executions of Jews and Romanies in the Babi Yar valley. December-Task Force C murders 824 Gypsies in Simferopol. Yugoslavia: October-German army executes 2,100 Jewish and Gypsy hostages (as reprisal for soldiers killed by partisans).Bulgaria: August-6,500 Gypsies registered by the police on one day. Croatia: May-The government and the Ustasha order the arrest of all Gypsies and their deportation to the extermination camp in Jasenovac. Germany: March-A special additional income tax is levied on Gypsies. July-A decree of the army general staff again orders that Gypsies not be taken for active military service. September- Himmler and Justice Minister Otto Thierack agree to transfer any Gypsies in prison to concentration camps. December-Himmler issues the order to deport the Gypsies in Greater Germany to the concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Poland: January-All Sinti and Romanies from the Lodz ghetto are transported and gassed at Chelmno. April-Romanies are brought into the Warsaw ghetto and kept in the prison in Gesia Street. May-All Gypsies in the Warsaw district to be interned in Jewish ghettoes. July-Several hundred Polish Romanies killed at Treblinka extermination camp. Romania: Spring and Summer -Some 20,000 Romanies are deported to Transnistria. Serbia: August-Harald Turner, head of the German military administration, announces that "the Gypsy question has been fully solved."Poland: January-Gypsies from Warsaw ghetto transferred to the extermination camp at Treblinka. February-First transports of Sinti and Romanies from Germany are delivered to the new Gypsy Section in Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. March - At Auschwitz, the Schutzstaffel (Storm Troopers) (SS) gasses some 1,700 men, women, and children. May-A further 1,030 men, women, and children gassed by the SS at Auschwitz. SS major Dr. Josef Mengele transferred at his own request to Auschwitz. July-Himmler visits the Gypsy Section in Auschwitz and orders the Gypsies killed. USSR: November-Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories orders all nomadic Gypsies in the territories are to be treated as Jews.Belgium: January-A transport of 351 Romanies and Sinti from Belgium dispatched to Auschwitz. Holland: May-A transport of 245 Romanies and Sinti sent to Auschwitz. Poland: 2 August -1,400 Gypsy prisoners are sent from Auschwitz to Buchenwald concentration camp. The remaining 2,900 Gypsies are killed in the gas chamber. Slovakia: Autumn-Romanies join the fight of partisans in the National Uprising.27 January -At 3:00 p.m., the first Soviet soldiers reach the main camp at Auschwitz and find one Romany among the survivors. May-World War II ends in Europe. All surviving Gypsies freed from camps. Bulgaria: Gypsy Organization for the Fight against Fascism and Racism set up. Germany: Nuremburg Trials of Nazi leaders begin. Crimes against Gypsies are included in the charges.France: Mateo Maximoff's novel The Ursitory published. Poland: Roma Ensemble founded.Bulgaria: Teatr Roma established in Sofia.Bulgaria: Teatr Roma in Sofia closed.France: The Pentecostal movement among Gypsies starts.Denmark: Gypsies readmitted to the country.1958 Bulgaria : Nomadism banned. Czechoslovakia: Nomadism banned. Hungary: National Gypsy organization established.1960 England and Wales : Caravan Sites Act reduces provision of caravan sites. France: Communauté Mondiale Gitane established.German Federal Republic: Courts rule that Gypsies were persecuted for racial reasons. Norway: Government Gypsy Committee established.Ireland: Report of the Commission on Itinerancy published. Italy: Opera Nomadi education scheme set up. Yugoslavia: Gypsies move to Shuto Orizari after Skopje earthquake.Ireland: Itinerant Action Group set up.France: Communauté Mondiale Gitane banned. Comité International Tzigane set up. Italy: Pope Paul VI addresses some 2,000 Gypsies at Pomezia.United Kingdom: Gypsy Council set up.Finland: National Gypsy Association established.England and Wales: Caravan Sites Act: Councils to build sites. Holland: All districts must build caravan sites.Bulgaria: Segregated schools are set up for Gypsies. Europe: Council of Europe Assembly passes a positive resolution on Gypsies. Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Abdi Faik elected a member of Parliament.Norway: Report published on proposed work with the Gypsies. United Kingdom: National Gypsy Education Council established.United Kingdom: First World Romany Congress held near London. Advisory Committee on the Travelling People starts work in Scotland.Czechoslovakia: Sterilization program for Gypsies begins. France: Band known as Los Reyes (later the Gypsy Kings) founded. Sweden: Stockholm's Finska Zigenarförening founded. United Kingdom: Romany Guild founded.German Federal Republic: Three Gypsies shot by farmer in Pfaf-fenhofen. Scandinavia: Nordiska Zigenarrâdet set up to link organizations. Yugoslavia, Macedonia: Radio broadcasts in Romani start from Tetovo.1975 Europe : Council of Europe Committee of Ministers adopts a positive resolution on nomads. Hungary: The first issues of the magazine Rom som [I Am a Romany] appear.Netherlands: Legalization of 500 "illegal" Gypsy immigrants. United Kingdom: Cripps Report on Gypsies published. United Nations: Subcommission passes resolution on protection of Gypsies.Switzerland: Second World Romany Congress held in Geneva.Hungary: National Gypsy Council formed. First national exhibition of self-taught Gypsy artists held. Norway: ABC Romani primer produced for mother-tongue teaching. Romania: St. John's Gospel published underground in Romani. United Nations: International Romani Union recognized by the United Nations Economic and Social Council.Yugoslavia: Romani grammar in Romani published in Skopje.Europe: Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe resolution on helping nomads held. German Federal Republic: Third World Romany Congress in Göttingen held. Poland: Pogrom instigated in Oswiecim. Yugoslavia: Gypsies granted national status on an equal footing with other minorities.France: New François Mitterrand government promises to help nomads.Europe: Council of Ministers passes a resolution on stateless nomads. Italy: Gypsy caravans removed from Rome at the start of the Annus Sanctus. United Kingdom: First national Pentecostal convention held. Belfast Traveller Education Development Group established in Northern Ireland. Yugoslavia, Kosovo: Romani teaching begins in one school.Europe: European Parliament passes a resolution on aiding Gypsies. India: Chandigarh Festival held.France: First International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art held in Paris. Ireland: Report of the Travelling People Review Body published. Sweden: Gypsy family attacked in Kumla with stones and a firebomb.France: International Gypsy conference held in Paris. Spain: Gypsy houses set on fire in Martos. Yugoslavia, Sarajevo: International Romany seminar held.Hungary: Organization Phralipe founded.Europe: Council of the Europe resolution on promoting school provision for Gypsy and Traveler children held. Germany: Government initiates the deportation of several thousand foreign Gypsies from the country. Gypsies demonstrate at the site of the concentration camp at Neuengamme against the deportation of asylum seekers. Hungary: Roma Parliament set up. Poland: First Romane Divesa Festival held. Romania: Border guards shoot party of Gypsies. Spain: Gypsy houses attacked in Andalusia.Poland: Permanent exhibition on Romanies opens in Tarnow. Fourth World Romany Congress held near Warsaw; standard alphabet for Romani adopted by the Congress. Journal Rrom p-o Drom [Romanies on the Road] starts publication. Romania: Miners attack Romany quarter in Bucharest. Yugoslavia: Egyptian Associations formed in Kosovo and Macedonia.Czech Republic: Romani teaching starts at Prague University. Italy: Ostia international conference held. Macedonia: Romanies have equal rights in new republic. Poland: Pogrom instigated in Mlawa. Slovakia: Government gives Romanies nationality status and equal rights. Ukraine: Police attack settlement of Velikie Beryezni.Hungary: Arson attack occurs on Gypsies in Kétegyháza. Poland: Attack occurs on remaining Gypsies in Oswiecim. Slovakia: Romathan Theater established in Kosice. Ukraine: Mob attacks Gypsy houses in Tatarbunary. United Nations: Commission on Human Rights passes resolution on protection of Gypsies. Gypsies recognized as an ethnic group.Bulgaria: A crowd of Bulgarians attacks the Gypsy quarter in Malorad, killing one Romany man. Czech Republic: Tibor Danihel drowns running away from skinhead gang. Seven Romanies deported from Ustí nad Labem to Slovakia. Europe: Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe Resolution on Gypsies held. Germany: First International Conference on Romani Linguistics held in Hamburg. Hungary: Gypsies recognized as a national minority. International Conference held in Budapest. Macedonia: Romani language officially introduced in schools. Romania: Three Gypsies killed in pogrom in Hadareni. Slovakia: Cyril Dunka beaten up by police after a parking incident. United Kingdom: Scottish Gypsy/Traveller Association set up. United Nations:Romany Union upgraded to Category II consultative status.France: Standing Conference of Romany Associations formed in Strasbourg. Hungary: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe meeting sets up Contact Point for Roma and Sinti Issues in Budapest, based initially in Warsaw. Gypsies vote for their local Romany councils. Poland: Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights organizes Warsaw seminar on Romanies. Gypsy boy beaten up and houses inhabited by Romanies attacked in Debica. Spain: European Congress held in Seville. United Kingdom: Criminal Justice Act: Nomadism criminalized.Austria: Four Roma killed by a bomb in Oberwart, Burgenland. Bulgaria: One Gypsy dies following an arson attack on a block of flats in Sofia. Angel Angelov shot by police in Nova Zagora. Czech Republic: Tibor Berki killed by skinheads in Zdár nad Sázavou. Europe: Council of Europe sets up specialist advice group on Romanies. Hungary: Second International Exhibition (Mondiale) of Gypsy Art held. International Romani Union organizes "Sarajevo" Peace Conference in Budapest. Gypsies attacked and injured in Kalocsa. Poland: Gypsy couple murdered in Pabianice. Grota Bridge settlement of Romanian Gypsies in Warsaw dispersed by police. Residents deported across the border to Ukraine. Slovakia: Mario Goral burned to death by skinheads in Ziar nad Hronom. Turkey: Zehala Baysal dies in police custody in Istanbul.Albania: Fatmir Haxhiu dies of burns after a racist attack. Bulgaria: Kuncho Anguelov and Kiril Perkov, deserters from the army, shot and killed by military police. Three Romanies beaten by skinheads in Samokov. Czech Republic: Romany children banned from swimming pool in Kladno. Europe: European Court of Human Rights rejects the appeal by Mrs. Buckland against the refusal of planning permission in England for her caravan. First meeting of the Committee of Experts of the Council of Europe held. France: Second meeting of the Standing Committee of Gypsy Organizations in Strasbourg held. Greece: Police raid camp in Attica. Police officer shoots Anastasios Mouratis in Boetia. Hungary: European Roma Rights Center set up in Budapest. Ireland: National Strategy on Traveller Accommodation proposed. Poland: Houses occupied by Romanies attacked in Wiebodzice. Romania: Twenty-one Romany houses burned down in Curtea de Arges. Mircea-Muresul Mosor shot and killed by chief of police in Valcele. Serbia: Gypsies attacked in Kraljevo. Slovakia: Eighteen-year-old Romany youth beaten to death by skinheads in Poprad. Jozef Miklos dies when his house is set on fire in Zalistie. Spain: Romany Union's second "Sarajevo" Peace Conference, in Gasteiz (Vittoria). Turkey: Five thousand evicted from Selamsiz quarter of Istanbul. Ukraine: "Mrs. H" raped by police in Mukacevo. Two brothers shot by police in Velikie Beryezni.Bulgaria: February-Killing of three Gypsies by police reported. Police attack the Gypsy quarter in Pazardjik. November- International conference on Gypsy children and their education held. Czech Republic: February-Appeals court in Pilsen quashes acquittal of inn owner Ivo Blahout on a charge of discrimination. March- Four skinheads sentenced to prison in connection with the 1993 death of Tibor Danihel. August-Several hundred Romanies fly to Canada to seek asylum. Monument erected at Hodonin to concentration camp victims. France: March-Jose Ménager and Manolito Meuche shot dead by police in Nantes. Greece: April-One hundred families evicted from Ano Liosia. Partially resettled in a guarded camp. Hungary: February-Gypsies beaten up in Szombathely police station and in a police car in Mandatany in separate incidents. May-Fifth annual International Conference on Culture held in Budapest. Norway: November-In Bergen, Ian Hancock receives Thorolf Rafto Prize on behalf of the Romany people. Poland: June-Romanies attacked in Wiebodzice. Romania: January-Mob attacks Gypsy houses in Tan-ganu village. Spain: November-European Congress of Gypsy Youth held in Barcelona. Turkey: January-Mob attacks Gypsies in Sulukule district of Istanbul. Ukraine: January-Gypsies beaten by police in four separate incidents in Uzhorod. United Kingdom: November-National Front demonstrates in Dover against asylum seekers from the Czech and Slovak republics.Bulgaria: November-Prince Charles of Britain visits Stolipino, Romany quarter of Plovdiv. Czech Republic: 4 -6 September -International Romany cultural festival RESPECT held in Prague.December-International Conference on the Roma at Castle Stirin. United Kingdom: 16 May -Music festival in London with Czech and Polish Gypsy bands composed of asylum seekers. October-Home Secretary Jack Straw introduces visas for Slovak citizens to keep out asylum seekers. 19 October -In Wales, Cardiff County Council organizes a Gypsy and Traveller Awareness Day. United States: New Jersey governor Christine Whitman signs Assembly Bill 2654, which rescinds the last anti-Gypsy law of any U.S. state. December-International Romani Union delegation, led by Rajko Djuric, attends Nazi Gold Conference on Holocaust assets in Washington.Bulgaria: June-Sofia Conference on Peace and Security held for Roma in the Balkans. Czech Republic: January-More than 100 prominent persons sign protest to government over locating of pig farm on concentration camp site. France: Loi Besson encourages the provision of council-run caravan sites. Greece: February- Local authority sets fire to five Roma houses in Aspropyrgos to construct Olympic sports facilities. Macedonia: September - Government admits 500 Roma refugees from Kosovo held for a week at the border. Romania: December-International Conference on Public Policies and Romany Women held in Bucharest. Turkey: November - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Istanbul Conference welcomes the development of the Romany civil rights movement.Romania: January-Doctors of the World colloquium on Gypsies in Europe held in Bucharest. Czech Republic: July-Fifth World Romany Congress held in Prague. Finland: Publication of St. Luke's Gospel in Romani. Germany: May-Conference on "Die unerwün-schte Deutschen" ("The Unwanted Germans") held in Stuttgart. Poland: International Romani Union and Romany National Congress sign joint declaration in Warsaw. Vatican: March-Pope John Paul II asks forgiveness for the mistreatment of Gypsies by Catholics. United Kingdom: September-A thousand police block access to the traditional Horsmonden Fair.Germany: November-Romany writers meet in Cologne and agree to set up an international association. India: April-International Romani Union leaders visit the Romano Kher (Nehru House) in Chandigarh. Italy: November-Two hundred members of the NationalAlliance march to protest new Roma housing in Rome. Macedonia: January-Magazine Roma Times begins publication. Poland: August - Permanent Romany Holocaust exhibition opened at Auschwitz. Russia: July-Thirty skinheads attack a Gypsy camp in Volgograd, killing two adults. Serbia: July-Anti-Roma graffiti appear in Panchevo and Surdulica. South Africa: Roma attend the World Conference against Racism, held in Durban.Croatia: September-One hundred Croat parents prevent Roma children from entering a newly integrated school in the village of Drzimurec-Strelec. Finland: Drabibosko liin, the first ABC reader for Gypsies in Finland, published. July: International Romani Writers Association founded in Helsinki. France: October-Delegation representing a dozen Gypsy organizations meets minister of the interior to discuss slow process of caravan site provision. Hungary: June-A Rom-Laszlo Teleki-appointed as the state secretary for Roma affairs. Ireland: March-Housing Act criminalizes trespass by caravans. July-Traveller Movement pickets the Dail (Parliament) opposing the new Housing Act. Poland: May-Romany National Congress organizes an alternative International Romany Congress in Lodz. United Kingdom: November-Exhibition held of Gypsy children's photos at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.Croatia: October-Ms. Mukic, deputy ombudsman, criticized for condemning segregation in schools. Hungary: June-World Bank sponsors international conference on Roma in eastern Europe in Budapest. Ireland: Internal Security Bill proposes fines of 3,750 euros for Travelers who trespass. Switzerland: August-British Gypsies protest against UK policy at a UN conference in Geneva. United Kingdom: Fifteen-year old Irish Traveler Johnny Delaney killed in a racist attack in Liverpool. 5 November -Villagers in Sussex burn caravan and effigies of Gypsies.France: 16 December -Council of Europe and the European Roma and Travellers Forum sign a partnership agreement in Strasbourg. Greece: More Gypsy settlements are cleared away near the Olympic Games venues in Athens. Spain: November-Gypsy organizations hire Saatchi and Saatchi to mount a campaign to change public attitudes toward Gypsies. United States: 8 November -Sen. Hillary Clinton presents the keynote address at the conference Plight of the Roma, held at Columbia University.2005 Austria : 4 February -President Heinz Fischer attends a memorial ceremony for the four Roma killed in 1995. Bulgaria: 31 August - Authorities destroy 25 Roma houses in the Hristo Botev district of Sofia. Europe: 28 April -European Parliament adopts a resolution on Roma rights. 17 May -European Court of Human Rights opens the case against discrimination in the city of Ostrava, Slovakia. Finland: September-International Romany Music Festival held in Porvoo. German: 12 September -International An-tiziganismus Conference held in Hamburg. Norway: 27 April - Gypsies take part in demonstration outside the Parliament in Oslo stressing need for education. Russia: January-Four hundred Roma leave the town of Iskitim after a pogrom. Slovakia: 17 March - United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination rules that Slovakia's housing policies violate international law. Spain: 13 September -The flamenco musical Los Tarantos (based on Romeo and Juliet) opens in Madrid. United Kingdom: May- Sylvia Dunn stands for Parliament from Folkestone against Conservative Party leader Michael Howard. 25 July -Government announces £8 million fund for new and refurbished caravan sites. October-A Scottish parliamentary committee criticizes the government for not improving the quality of life of Gypsy and Traveler families.
Historical dictionary of the Gypsies . Donald Kenrick.
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Timeline of Romani history — The Roma have long been a part of the collective mythology of the West, where they were (and very often still are) depicted as outsiders, aliens, and a threat. For centuries they were enslaved in Eastern Europe and hunted in Western Europe: the… … Wikipedia
Diggers (theater) — For other meanings, see Diggers (disambiguation). The Diggers were a radical community action group of activists and Improv actors operating from 1966–68, based in the Haight Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco. Their politics were such that… … Wikipedia
1960 in the United Kingdom — Events of the year 1960 in the United Kingdom.Incumbents*Monarch :: HM Queen Elizabeth II *Prime Minister:Harold Macmillan, Conservative PartyEvents* January The state of emergency is lifted in Kenya the Mau Mau Uprising is officially over. * 5… … Wikipedia
Roma people — Infobox Ethnic group group = Roma image caption = Khamoro Roma Festival Prague 2007 flag caption = Flag of the Roma people pop = 15 million or more region1 = flagcountry|IND pop1 = 5,794,000 ref1 = lower| [cite… … Wikipedia
King of the Gypsies — For the 1978 movie with the same title, see King of the Gypsies (film). The title King of the Gypsies has been claimed or given over the centuries to many different people. It is both culturally and geographically specific. It may be inherited,… … Wikipedia