Australia
   Size of Gypsy population unknown; estimates range from 500 to 20,000. Many Gypsies were deported to Australia from England as petty criminals when this penalty was introduced in 1787. The first was probably Lazarus Scamp, who arrived on the Scarborough in 1790. He had been sentenced in Hampshire in 1788 for stealing a sheep. The main clans to be found today are English Romanies (descendants of the earlier deportees and newer voluntary emigrants), Kalderash (who came from 1898 on), and Roma from Eastern Europe after 1945. Organizations include the Romani Association of Australia (founded 1990) and Romani International Australia. There is an annual gathering, now held at Byron Bay. Notables among the Romani community include university lecturer Kenneth Lee, writer Yvonne Slee, poets Lee Fuhler and Henry Lawson, and musician and playwright Brian Hungerford.

Historical dictionary of the Gypsies . .

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