Alphabet
   It seems probable that the Gypsies did not bring any writing system with them when they came to Europe. The alphabet given in Jean-Paul Clébert's book The Gypsies is spurious. Publications in Romani in the 20th century have used the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. The first World Romany Congress recommended a broad phonetic alphabet based on Latin letters, and most literature produced since then has been in the Latin alphabet.
   The alphabet of the first World Romany Congress was as follows:
   a b c ch d e f g h hi j k kh l m n o p ph r s s t th u v z z
   At the second Congress, h was replaced by x. At the fourth World Romany Congress in Warsaw in 1990, a writing system elaborated by linguist Marcel Cortiade was adopted. Its purpose was to enable speakers of different dialects to use the same spelling system to represent different dialect pronunciations. The presidium of the International Romani Union approved the alphabet on 7 April 1990. Later, a meeting of the Language Commission of the Union, held during the Helsinki Summer School, recommended that no change be made in the alphabet for a period of 10 years. It has been adopted in the Netherlands and Romania for educational purposes and has been used in a number of publications.
   The alphabet accepted at the fourth Congress was as follows:
   a b c c ç ch d e f g h i j k kh l m n o p ph r rr s s t th 9 u v x z z 3
   The letters ç and 0 are used morphophonemically, that is, they always represent the same grammatical form but are pronounced differently. So, in rakles0e (to the boy) and raklen0e (to the boys), 0 is pronounced as t in the former word and d in the latter. The letters ch and 3 are pronounced differently according to the dialect. Most speakers of Vlah dialects would read them as shy and zhy (approximately the sound in English treasure), while speakers of Balkan dialects would read them as aspirated tch and (English) j.

Historical dictionary of the Gypsies . .

Synonyms:
(of a language), , / (of a subject), , ,


Look at other dictionaries:

  • ALPHABET — Tout alphabet est une collection de signes graphiques qui correspondent à autant de sons vocaux dans une langue ou dans un groupe de langues donné; la lettre, ou caractère, représente l’unité ultime dont se composent les phonèmes. Encore que… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • alphabet — ALPHABET. s. m. Recueil de toutes les lettres d une Langue, rangées selon l ordre établi dans cette Langue. Alphabet Hébreu. Alphabet Arabe. Alphabet Grec. Alphabet Latin. L alphabet François. f♛/b] On dit d Un homme qui n a que les premiers… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • alphabet — ALPHABET. s. m. Recuëil de toutes les lettres d une Langue, rangées selon l ordre établi dans cette Langue. Alphabet Hebreu. alphabet Arabe. alphabet Grec, Latin &c. il en est encore à l alphabet. dictionnaire par alphabet. Il se dit aussi, d Un… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Alphabet — Sn std. (13. Jh.) Entlehnung. Im Spätmittelhochdeutschen entlehnt aus kirchen l. alphabētum, dieses aus gr. alphábētos m./f., aus gr. álpha und gr. bēta, den Namen der beiden ersten Buchstaben, die von den Griechen mit dem Alphabet über… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Alphabet — Al pha*bet, n. [L. alphabetum, fr. Gr. ? + ?, the first two Greek letters; Heb. [=a]leph and beth: cf. F. alphabet.] 1. The letters of a language arranged in the customary order; the series of letters or signs which form the elements of written… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • alphabet — (n.) 1570s, from L.L. alphabetum (Tertullian), from Gk. alphabetos, from ALPHA (Cf. alpha) + BETA (Cf. beta). Alphabet soup first attested 1907. Words for it in Old English included stæfræw, lit. row of letters, stæfrof array of letters. It was a …   Etymology dictionary

  • Alphabet — (Omachi,Япония) Категория отеля: 2 звездочный отель Адрес: 398 0001 Нагано, Omachi, Taira 2 …   Каталог отелей

  • Alphabet — Al pha*bet, v. t. To designate by the letters of the alphabet; to arrange alphabetically. [R.] [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Alphabēt — (von Alpha und Beta, den zwei ersten griech. Buchstaben), Bezeichnung der Gesamtheit der Buchstaben einer Sprache, d.h. sowohl der Laute als der Zeichen, nach ihrer herkömmlichen Reihenfolge, zu deutsch: ABC. Vgl. Schrift. – Das musikalische A.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Alphabet — »Abc«: Die seit mhd. Zeit bezeugte, aus der Schulsprache übernommene Bezeichnung führt über entsprechend kirchenlat. alphabetum auf gleichbed. griech. alphábētos zurück. Wie dt. Abc ist auch das griech. Wort aus den Anfangsbuchstaben des (griech …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Alphabet — [Network (Rating 5600 9600)] Bsp.: • Kannst du das englische Alphabet aufsagen? …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”