Estimated Gypsy population: over 600,000. The first to arrive were deportees in the time when the country was a Portuguese colony. Maria Fernandes (whose presence was recorded in 1591) had been transported from Portugal for stealing donkeys. The Association for the Preservation of Gypsy Culture believes there are some one million Gypsies in the country, 300,000 being nomadic. Few have birth certificates, and this limits their access to public services. Claudio Iovanovitchi represents the Gypsies on the National Council for the Protection of Racial Equality, while they took part in the First National Conference to Promote Racial Equality in 2005.

Historical dictionary of the Gypsies . .

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